Stages of New Building Construction
This article covers the basic stages/steps of new building construction and designing. Here are some important sequential steps using which you may plan your housing project in a better way and efficiently. We aim to provide you with a better understanding of construction in a simplified manner.
House Construction Steps
Locating land for constructing your dream home is very important. Identify the Land according to your choice. Always take the advice of an architect preferably with sound knowledge in Vastu and Kerala building rules to check and verify the plot which you have in mind. The Architect should be able to guide you considering Vastu Principles, soil conditions, and the latest building rules applying to your plot of land.
Verify with local authority offices like Panchayath/municipality/Corporation whether there is any objection in building a house in that specific plot with respect to the survey no of your said plot. Also, make a point to check that your plot has no legal complications.
2. Design Process
Before finding/meeting up with an architect make a rough requirement list for your home. This process should cover the basic concepts of your home, such as living space, no: of bedrooms you want, Guest bedrooms, Hall, kitchen, Bathrooms, where you want the stairs, car porch, Garden/landscaping/Pond etc.. You should involve your family also, ask their likes and suggestions. Visit your friends, talk to neighbours about the pros and cons of their property and what they would like to improve. Stages of work at a glance.
3. Funding/ Budgeting
How much will a house cost you to build? There has been a tremendous increase in the cost of house construction in Kerala. These days the normal running rate per square feet is anywhere between 1800 - 3500 + Rs including materials and labour. One should always make a note of the available cash at hand and also you may approach banks for loans ..in that way you come to know how much you can spare.
4. The Architect
Arrange a meeting with the architects. Talk through design goals and then fix an Architect, he will draw up schematics for consideration coupling functionality, room-by-room layouts, finding the best furniture positioning and use of space. Recommending structural changes where this seeks to make space work better. A 2D sketch is developed, which is then further refined and made to a 3D model, you can consult with the architect and his team to develop the final 3D Model of your house as well as an elevation. An approved architect will develop drawings for Panchayat /City Municipality / Corporation to approve.
5. Building Permits
Permit to build your home is issued by the local governing bodies such as Panchayath / Municipality /Corporation which is normally valid for 2 years.
6. Building Contractor
Finding a good building Contractor is the next biggest task. And ideally, you have to identify a builder, plumber, mechanical, electrical contractor. But if you can find a good, reliable and reasonable contractor you can save your time and money. Always ask his method of working and check how reliable he is. You may visit and see some of his previous projects and speak with his previous clients. If he has good
You may visit and see some of his previous projects and speak with his previous clients. If he has good credentials, technical know-how and is also good at giving a quality work output then you can consider him as your Contractor.
7. Construction Process
Site Clearance -- Before starting any construction work it becomes necessary to clear the place from the unwanted grass, boulder etc. In case of any hill like appearance on the ground, that too needs to be cleared of the excess earth and if there is a pit, it is required to be filled up. This total job is called site clearance.
Break Ground & Excavation-- After the site clearance, the layout of the structure at the site can be planned with respect to the given foundation plans. Begin earth excavation and take trenches accordingly.
Foundation-- A foundation is the lower portion of building a structure that transfers its gravity loads to the earth. Foundation work is done according to drawings provided by the Architect. i.e. the size of foundation, depth, length and breadth etc. and type of foundation (Rubble Packing or Raft and beams etc ..)
Superstructure -- Super-structure is to provide support in the construction of the building as per the designed plan and various members of super-structure such as columns and beams are designed to provide strength for carrying the dead load and live load expected to come on the various parts of the structure in a safe and well-distributed manner. After casting the roofing slab necessary waterproofing coatings shall be done.
Stairs -- Vasthu instructs and recommends having rising stair steps going up in the North-South direction or West-East direction if it is spiral stair steps going up in the clockwise direction. But due to constraints on building design, it is not always possible to follow Vastu's recommendations. Latest Handrail Designs.Stairs made of Wood and Glass.
Boundary Wall and Gates -- Compound walls should be built ideally just before beginning major construction activities, it is to protect the site and the material stored in the storage shed, from the outside environments and from thieves. Latest gate designs.
8. Roof / Heat Protective Coatings
Truss work roofing, Weather Resistant Barrier, Waterproofing coatings, Rainscreen, Green roof are some of the applications you can implement to reduce heat.
9. Electrical And Lighting
Works can be done after the masonry work has been completed. Tips on Electrical Wiring.
10. Interior Design
Works can be executed according to the working drawing provided by the architect.
Plastering work can commence after the initial lighting and electrical plumbing work has been completed. Cement plaster is generally used with 13 mm thickness and sometimes it can be of 20 mm thickness. On completion of brickwork, plastering is to be done.
(a) to make the building structurally strong
(b) to protect it from the effect of weather, and
(c) to give it an attractive look.
12. Initial Plumbing
Once plastering is done for bathroom walls, it is okay to start plumbing works.
Is done with cement primer once initial wiring work and plumbing works are done.
Flooring works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the interior walls. There are many types of floors according to their uses, economy and required level of finishing. Ceramic tiles, Vitrified tiles, Clay Tiles, Granite, Marble, Wood, Epoxy flooring are some of the options you have in flooring.
15. Cabinets, Interior Works, Crockery Shelves
Interior works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the interior walls. Cabinets, shelves and kitchen can be done using a variety of materials that are currently available in the market such as Wood, Multi-Wood, MDF, Plywood, ACP, Stainless steel..etc
16. Finishing Plumbing Works
This can be done after tiling works are completed.
17. Finishing Electrical and Lighting works
These are done just before the application of the final finishing coat of paint.
18. Completion Certificate
At this stage, one can apply for a completion certificate from the respective authorities. After completion of construction Architect/Licensee will have to apply for a completion certificate in the prescribed format along with completed building drawings to the Issuing Authorities.
The local authority will check completion documents for compliance with building rules and will assess building tax for the building. Once you have received the completion /occupancy certificate you can apply for a water connection.
Read More about the documents required for building permits.
A temporary electrical connection can be applied any time once you have an active site which can be converted to a permanent connection later on when all the necessary papers are at hand.
19. Hardscaping and Landscaping
Once your builder has completed your home, there’s still the “hardscaping” to be done – the driveway, patio and walkways, and then the “landscaping” plan can be put into action – the irrigation system, laying of grass bed and planting of trees, as well as outdoor lighting, to be considered.
20. Final Cleanup
There will always be debris leftover from the construction process on the interior and exterior of the home that you’ll want to have removed/cleaned.
21. Moving In